The human brain is the most complex organ in the human body and probably the most complex creation present in this universe. A command center for the central nervous system, the brain serves human beings with ample physical and cognitive abilities.
It is made up of more than 100 billion nerves that communicate in trillions of connections called synapses.
Your brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves make up a complex, integrated information-processing and control system known as your central nervous system.
The Frontal Lobe
This is the lobe just above your eyes. It deals with lots of stuff, including your emotions and key motor functions. Famously, a railroad-worker named Phineas Gage had part of his frontal lobe destroyed in an accident – he survived but it left him a very changed man.
The Temporal Lobe
Below the frontal lobe you have the temporal lobe, which has a big role in memory formation and understanding language.
The Parietal Lobe
This lobe is responsible for processing information about some of the senses. For example, it is the main area related to your sense of touch and it also looks after your sense of place and body known as ‘proprioception’.
The Occipital Lobe
This lobe is all about sight. It’s here you’ll find the visual system (despite it being the furthest from the eyes).
Cerebellum (sehh-re-bellum) is actually latin for ‘little brain’. It’s apt – this small section sits just beneath the hemispheres. It’s largely concerned with motor control – if you damage it, it will affect your movement and posture.
Small but important, the brainstem delivers all sorts of useful information to the brain. It connects your brain with the systems in your body. And it also plays a big role in regulating lots of things including your breathing, your heart rate and even your sleep and levels of consciousness.
There are many types of headaches; some can be serious but most are not and are generally treated with analgesics/painkillers.
Blood flow and oxygen are suddenly interrupted to an area of brain tissue, which then dies. A blood clot, or bleeding in the brain, is the cause of most strokes.
An artery in the brain develops a weak area that swells, balloon-like. A brain aneurysm rupture can cause a stroke.
Bleeding within or under the dura, the lining inside of the skull. A subdural hematoma may exert pressure on the brain, causing neurological problems.
Bleeding between the tough tissue (dura) lining the inside of the skull and the skull itself, usually shortly after a head injury. Initial mild symptoms can progress rapidly to unconsciousness and death, if untreated.
Any bleeding inside the brain.
A brain injury that causes a temporary disturbance in brain function. Traumatic head injuries cause most concussions.
Swelling of the brain tissue in response to injury or electrolyte imbalances.
Any abnormal tissue growth inside the brain. Whether malignant (cancer) or benign, brain tumors usually cause problems by the pressure they exert on the normal brain.
An aggressive, malignant brain tumor (cancer). Brain glioblastomas progress rapidly and are very difficult to cure.
An abnormally increased amount of cerebrospinal (brain) fluid inside the skull. Usually this is because the fluid is not circulating properly.
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
A form of hydrocephalus that often causes problems walking, along with dementia and urinary incontinence. Pressures inside the brain remain normal, despite the increased fluid.
Inflammation of the lining around the brain or spinal cord, usually from infection. Stiff neck, neck pain, headache, fever, and sleepiness are common symptoms.
Inflammation of the brain tissue, usually from infection with a virus. Fever, headache, and confusion are common symptoms.
Traumatic Brain Injury
Permanent brain damage from a traumatic head injury. Obvious mental impairment, or more subtle personality and mood changes can occur.
Nerves in a central area of the brain degenerate slowly, causing problems with movement and coordination. A tremor of the hands is a common early sign.
An inherited nerve disorder that affects the brain. Dementia and difficulty controlling movements (chorea) are its symptoms.
The tendency to have seizures. Head injuries and strokes may cause epilepsy, but usually no cause is identified.
A decline in cognitive function resulting from death or malfunction of nerve cells in the brain. Conditions in which nerves in the brain degenerate, as well as alcohol abuse and strokes, can cause dementia.
A pocket of infection in the brain, usually by bacteria. Antibiotics and surgical drainage of the area are often necessary.